Sed

All the words in the Bible that come after “Thou shalt not”

cat kjv.txt | tr ‘[A-Z]’ ‘[a-z]’ | awk -F ‘thou shalt not ‘ ‘NF>1{ sub(/ .*/,””,$NF); print $NF }’ | sed ‘s/punct://g’ | sort | uniq

 

 

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Age of the Earth

THE AGE OF THE EARTH

james_ussher_demotivator_by_jas09-d583xkg

If you believe the Bible is the inerrant word of God, there is no way around the fact that the bible teaches the Earth was created in 4163 BCE and that the flood was in 2507 BCE. The destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 586 BCE is known from secular history and archaeology.

The reigns of the kings of Judah from the fall of Jerusalem back to King Joash:

In 597 BCE Zedekiah began a reign of 11 years (2 Kings 24:18)

Also in 597 BCE Jehoiachin began a reign of three months (2 Kings 24:8)

In 608 BCE Jehoiakim began a reign of 11 years (2 Kings 23:36)

In 608 BCE Jehoahaz began a reign of three months (2 Kings 23:31)

In 639 BCE Josiah began a reign of 31 years (2 Kings 22:1)

In 641 BCE Amon began a reign of 2 years (2 Kings 21:19)

In 696 BCE Manasseh began a reign of 55 years (2 Kings 21:1)

In 725 BCE Hezekiah began a reign of 29 years (2 Kings 18:2)

In 741 BCE Ahaz began a reign of 16 years (2 Kings 16:2)

In 757 BCE Jotham began a reign of 16 years (2 Kings 15:33)

In 809 BCE Azariah began a reign of 16 years (2 Kings 15:2)

In 838 BCE Amaziah began a reign of 29 years (2 Kings 14:2)

In 878 BCE Joash began a reign of 40 years (2 Kings 12:2)

In 885 BCE Athaliah began a reign of 7 years (2 Kings 11:3)

In 886 BCE Ahaziah began a reign of one year (2 Kings 8:25)

In 894 BCE Jehoram began a reign of 8 years (2 Kings 8:16)

Jehoram became King of Judah in the fifth year of the reign of King Joram of Israel.

I will now cross over to the northern kingdom and list the reigns of the kings of Israel (Samaria) from Joram to Solomon.

In 890 BCE Joram began a reign of 12 years (2 Kings 3:1)

In 892 BCE Ahaziah began a reign of 2 years (1 Kings 22:52)

In 914 BCE Ahab began a reign of 22 years (1 Kings 16:29)

In 926 BCE Omri began a reign of 12 years (1 Kings 16:23)

In 930 BCE Tibni began a reign of 4 years (1 Kings 16:22)

In 932 BCE Elah began a reign of 2 years (1 Kings 16:8)

In 956 BCE Baasha began a reign of 24 years (1 Kings 15:33)

In 958 BCE Nadab began a reign of 2 years (1 Kings 15:25)

In 980 BCE Jeroboam began a reign of 22 years (1 Kings 14:20).

His rule commenced upon the division of the united kingdom into the House of Israel, ruled by King Jeroboam, and the House of Judah, ruled by King Rehoboam (1 Kings 12:20)

In 1020 BCE Solomon began a reign of 40 years (1 Kings 11:42)

In 1017 BCE construction of the temple began, in Solomon’s fourth year of power, 480 years after the Exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt in 1497 BCE (1 Kings 6:1)

In 1927 BCE, 430 years before the Exodus, Jacob (Israel) led a migration of his large clan to Egypt to mitigate a famine in the Levant. (Exo. 12:40)

In 2057 BCE Jacob was born, known from his age of 130 years when he arrived in Egypt (Gen. 47:9)

In 2117 BCE Isaac was born, since he begat Jacob when he was 60 years of age (Gen. 25:26)

In 2217 BCE Abraham was born, since he begat Isaac when he was 100 years of age (Gen. 21:5)

In 2287 BCE Terah was born, since he begat Abraham when he was 70 years of age (Gen. 11:26)

In 2316 BCE Nahor was born, since he begat Terah when he was 29 years of age (Gen. 11:24)

In 2346 BCE Serug was born, since he begat Nahor when he was 30 years of age (Gen. 11:22)

In 2378 BCE Reu was born, since he begat Serug when he was 32 years of age (Gen. 11:20)

In 2408 BCE Peleg was born, since he begat Reu when he was 30 years of age (Gen. 11:18)

In 2442 BCE Eber was born, since he begat Peleg when he was 34 years of age (Gen. 11:16)

In 2472 BCE Shelah was born, since he begat Eber when he was 30 years of age (Gen. 11:14)

At this point we hit a serious snag because in Genesis 11:12 Arpaschad is said to be 35 years of age when he begets Shelah (or Sala, or Salah), taking us to 2507. Gen. 11:10 says Arpaschad was born two years after the flood. But Gen. 7:11 has the flood hit when Noah was 600. Genesis 5:32 says Noah was 500 years of age when he begat Ham, Shem, and Japheth, all at once, as triplets apparently. And Genesis 11:10 says Shem was 100 when he begat Arphaxad (or Arpashchad, which means Genesis is telling us Aphaschad was born on ark, and also two years later.

Into the homestretch.

In 3289 BCE Lamech was born, since he begat Noah at 182 years of age (Gen. 5:28)

In 3476 BCE Methuselah was born, since he begat Lamech at 187 years of age (Gen. 5:25)

In 3541 BCE Enoch was born, since he begat Methuselah at 65 years of age (Gen. 5:21)

In 3703 BCE Jared was born, since he begat Enoch at 162 years of age (Gen. 5:18)

In 3768 BCE Mahalalel was born, since he begat Jared at 65 years of age (Gen. 5:15)

In 3838 BCE Kenan was born, since he begat Mahalalel at 70 years of age (Gen. 5:12)

In 3928 BCE Enosh was born, since he begat Kenan when he was 90 years of age (Gen. 5:9)

In 4033 BCE Seth was born, since he begat Enosh when he was 105 years of age (Gen. 5:6)

In 4163 BCE Adam was made from a mudpie, since he begat Seth when he was 130 years of age (Gen. 5:3)

God gave mouth-to-mouth to the mudpie on the sixth day of creation week, so the Earth dates back to 4163 BCE as well. Note that this differs somewhat from Archbishop Ussher’s date of 4,004 BCE. He didn’t show his work. In his favor, he pinned it down to the month, day, and hour.

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Minor Prophets

Also we cannot resist the call of God. God is sovereign and has chosen his elect before the worlds existence. Just look at Paul. Would we have the Gospel if not for Paul? Is the sovereignty of God not thoroughly shown in the life of Paul?

On the contrary, it is written (Hosea 7:13): “Woe unto them! for they have fled from me: destruction unto them! because they have transgressed against me: though I have redeemed them, yet they have spoken lies against me.”

Wasn’t the serpent in the Garden of Eden? God always allowed free will, which allows the devil. Evil exists in God’s world bc it is absence of Him.

Sometimes God himself is the source of evil.

Amos 3:6 – Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, and the people not be afraid? shall there be evil in a city, and the LORD hath not done it?

Obadiah

Obadiah is the shortest book in the Old Testament, with only 21 verses. The prophet may not have actually been named Obadiah. That word means “Servant of God” and in Arabic the same title is Abdullah. A tradition in the Talmud is that Obadiah was a convert to Judaism from the Edomites, so it is poignant that he chose to direct his invective against his native people.

The Edomites were the descendants of Esau who were the Jews’ first cousins, sharing Isaac for a forefather, just as Arabs are Jews’ second cousins because they share Abraham for a forefather.

The Edomites were a tiny nation that lived along the cliffs and mountaintops of the arid land south of the Dead Sea, all the way to the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea. There was very little in the way of arable land, so the Edomites made their living supporting (and controlling) the main caravan route between Egypt and Babylon that passed through their whole land.

Throughout most of the history of Judah, Edom was controlled absolutely from Jerusalem as a vassal state, much like the way Syria controls Lebanon today.

Among the heathen great powers Edom was held of no account. Obadiah said that the high elevation of their dwelling place in the mountains of Seir had gone to their head a little bit, and they have puffed themselves up in pride.

“Though thou exalt thyself as the eagle, and though thou set thy nest among the stars, thence will I bring thee down, saith the LORD.”

In 597 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II sacked Jerusalem, carted away the King of Judea and installed a puppet King. The Edomites helped Nebbie loot the city, and that is why Obadiah, writing this prophesy around 590 BCE, is so bitter.

“In the day that thou stoodest on the other side, in the day that the strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusalem, even thou wast as one of them.”

Objectively, it is difficult to blame Edom for joining in the fun a little bit after centuries of rule by Judah. Still, Obadiah says they should have remembered that blood is thicker than water.

“Thou shouldest not have entered into the gate of my people in the day of their calamity; yea, thou shouldest not have looked on their affliction in the day of their calamity, nor have laid hands on their substance in the day of their calamity.”

Never mind that other prophets were saying that the sack of Jerusalem was God punishing Judah for disobedience. Edom should not have helped God punish Judah, and for doing that, Obadiah said God will wipe out the house of Esau forever, and not even a remnant would remain.

Unfortunately he didn’t tell Amos, who said in Amos 9:12 that a remnant of Edom would remain to be possessed by the Messiah, along with all the heathens. Edomites were too closely related to Judah to be called heathens even if Obadiah was angry with them.

Obadiah said the Edomites’ land would be possessed by Egypt and they would cease to exist as a people. But the Day of the Lord was at hand for all nations, and someday the Jews would return from their exile and possess the land of Edom.

“But upon mount Zion shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; and the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions.”

Obadiah’s prediction that the Jews would possess Edom came partly true. The western half of Edom is the Negev desert all the way to Eilat, all part of modern Israel. The eastern half is possessed by the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan.

Jonah

Jonah is a short story, completely fictional, which was written by a “liberal” during a time following the Babylonian Exile when proto-neocons were promoting Jewish exceptionalism. The moral of the story is that God’s forgiveness is available to everyone, not just the people of your own little group.

This moral is, of course, lost on evangelicals, who prefer to focus on the whale part, and insist it really happened exactly as written as evidence of God’s power to create miracles, and was not merely a plot device to keep the story moving along.

The plot of Jonah is simple.

  1. God tells Jonah to go to the Assyrian city of Nineveh and preach repentance, for the end is nigh.
  2. Jonah gets on a ship to obey, but soon God realizes he’s really just making for a port in the Med rather than Nineveh so so he assails the ship with a storm.
  3. Jonah admits to the ship’s captain that he offended his God, so they toss him into Davey Jones’ locker and immediately the storm abates.
  4. A giant whale comes along, swallows Jonah, and steams all the way around Cape Horn, up the Persian Gulf, up the Shaat-al-Arab between Iraq and Iran, and spits him out on the bank of the Tigris nigh to Nineveh after only three days.
  5. Now God tells Jonah again, go and preach repentance unto the inhabitants of the city, or he’s gonna nuke it in forty days.
  6. Jonah complies this time, and to his great surprise the people of the city put on sackcloth and pour ashes on their heads and repent of their wickedness just like Jonah told them to do.
  7. That outcome pisses Jonah off exceedingly, because he was really there just to see the divine fireworks.

So Jonah goes off in a huff and pouts. Then God comes to him and says:

JONAH 4:11: “Should I not have compassion on Nineveh, the great city in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know the difference between their right and left hand, as well as many animals?”

This is one of the rare instances in the Bible where God is being funny, and it turns out he has a sarcastic wit. God is saying, in essence, “Even if you hold the lives of more than a hundred thousand little children as nought, think of all the cattle that would be lost!”

Nahum

 

The city of Ninevah, now modern-day Mosul in Iraq, was the capital of the same Assyrian Empire that piece-parted out ten tribes of the children of Israel and made them go down the memory hole.   Now it was Ninevah’s turn and the prophet Nahum could barely conceal his glee as he ran through the litany of all the bad shit that was about to befall the city. It was everything Jonah wanted to say, only better.  Or worse, if you were a Ninevahite.

Stripped down to basics, it runs like this:

Our God is one who takes revenge, and now he is furious. God will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserves wrath for his enemies. He will not acquit the wicked. God hurls the whirlwind and in the storm, and clouds are the dust of his feet. He rebukes the sea, and makes it dry. He dries up all the rivers. The mountains quake at him, the hills melt, and the earth is burned in his presence, along with all those dwell in it. Who can stand before his indignation? His fury pours out like fire, and the rocks of the mountains are thrown down by him. With an overrunning flood he will make an utter end of Ninevah, and darkness shall pursue his enemies. He will make an utter end: affliction from that city shall not rise up the second time. He that dashes to pieces shall come upon you! The gates of the rivers shall be opened and the palace shall be dissolved. Woe to the bloody city! Now it is all full of lies and robbery. All shall flee from there and say Nineveh is laid waste. The fire shall devour it, the sword shall cut it off.  The nobles of the city shall dwell in the dust and the people shall be scattered into the mountains. There is no healing of this bruise, for the wickedness of the city oppressed all without cease.

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Bash

Convert between numerical bases

#!/bin/bash                                                
printf "hex2dec=";echo "ibase=16;$1"|bc                         
printf "dec2hex=";echo "obase=16;$1"|bc                         
printf "oct2dec=";echo "ibase=8;$1"|bc                          
printf "dec2oct=";echo "obase=8;$1"|bc


Binary to decimal

 

#! /bin/bash
D2B=({0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1})
echo $((10#${D2B[$1]}))

 

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Perl

Print all the four letter words in the Bible

cat kjv.txt | perl -ne ‘print map(“$_\n”, m/\w+/g);’ | tr A-Z a-z | sort | uniq | awk ‘length($1) == 4 {printf “%s “, $0}’

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GEM

sysfont

GEM by Digital Research coulda been a GUI contender. It coulda been somebody. But Bill Gates was more ruthless than Gary Kildall.

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Vim

In vim add a blank line above and below all search matches:

:%s/.\+salvation.\+/\r&\r/g

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Ufology

FLYING SAUCERS

On June 24, 1947, a U.S. Marine C-46 transport plane crashed on the northwest side of Mount Rainier in Washington State, and when word got around, a private pilot named Kenneth Arnold volunteered to aid with the search. While he was circling the mountain he spotted a cluster of nine brightly glowing meteors rushing past his plane toward the massive, remote bulk of Mt. Adams to the south.

Since they were pieces of a meteoric fireball in the process of breaking up, they seemed to be flying in formation, so Arnold assumed they were aircraft, and he naturally interpreted their brightness to be the sun glinting off of polished aluminum. The pieces were tumbling, and this made them hop up and down in the air stream. Back on the ground, Arnold told reporters they flew “like a saucer skipping over water.”

This was the very first UFO sighting, and it sparked a national obsession with “flying saucers” that bordered on mass hysteria. Suddenly there were many more sightings. Some were ordinary mistakes but most were outright copycat hoaxes. An important point that is often missed is how Arnold’s description of the actions of his nine meteors skipping like saucers somehow got garbled into the shape of the objects being like saucers, and once that got locked into the public’s mind, all UFOs suddenly began to look like saucers.  This is a classic case of mass hysteria.   A similar thing happened two thousand years ago when after the crucifixion somebody saw someone who looked a little bit like Jesus.

On July 7, 1947 there was a top secret Air Force project called “Mogul” resembling a weather balloon, designed to fly high in the stratosphere with instruments to listen for possible Soviet atomic blasts. The idea was that a balloon traveled with the wind and didn’t need power, so it could circle the globe and be retrieved when it returned to the US. Unfortunately, winds are unpredictable, so Mogul crashed on a farm near Roswell, New Mexico.

Quickly tasked to conceal the existence of Mogul, the first thing that came to mind was the big national flying saucer craze, so the Air Force made an official announcement that it had recovered the wreckage of a flying saucer. The press went nuts, and the Air Force bureaucracy gradually realized it had made a huge mistake. On July 8 they went on the radio and retracted the flying saucer claim, and said it naw, it was really just a weather balloon they had picked up. Americans were less cynical in those days, so the military successfully covered up the cover-up. And that was the last anyone heard of it, until three things happened that took away America’s virginity and put an end to the days when her leaders were looked up to and trusted implicitly.

The first was the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963, which sparked a poisonous conspiracy mindset that only seemed to be validated by later events, like the Tet Offensive in 1968, when people realized with shock that the government had lied to them and victory in the Vietnam War was actually nowhere in sight, plus the cover-ups and incredible abuses of power of the Nixon Administration in the Watergate affair.

It was only after this vast attitude shift occurred that people looked back and read ominous things into the comedy of errors that took place at the beginning of the UFO era. Alien bases were imagined to exist in the four corners area of the SW United States. An entire alphabet soup of imaginary government agencies were cooked up who supposedly controlled all information on the alien presence, and even the information that these agencies existed was, conveniently, also classified top secret. There were supposed to be projects to recover downed flying saucers and other projects to overhaul and test-fly recovered flying saucers. And the very lack of evidence for any of these claims was put forth as proof that a conspiracy to hide the truth existed and was banging on all six cylinders.

In the fall of 1977 and again in the spring of 1982 Steven Spielberg made a pair of movies with “good” aliens and “bad” federal agencies that tapped into the new mythology and made enormous amounts of money, but in reality there never was any coordinated government plan to respond to alien contact.  But like any other religion, true UFO believers are immune to facts.

UFO RELIGION:

1. ALIEN BASES exist in the four corners area of the US southwest.
2. COUNTRY CLUB is the secret facility for MJ-12 in Maryland.
3. DELTA is the MAJI arm tasked with security for all these projects.
4. EXCALIBUR is a weapon to destroy the alien underground bases.
5. MAJI means Majority Agency for Joint Intelligence.
6. MAJIC is the security classification for all MAJI-connected files.
7. MJ-12 is the group controlling all information on the alien presence.
8. POUNCE is the project to recover all downed alien craft.
9. REDLIGHT is the project to test-fly POUNCE-recovered alien craft.
10. SNOWBIRD is the cover for REDLIGHT using conventional technology.

“LEFT-BEHIND” EVANGELICAL PROTESTANTISM:

1. ALTAR CALL is the procedure by which personnel are designated for RAPTURE
2. JESUIT agents have infiltrated most congregations of designated personnel
3. MARK OF THE BEAST is the bar code required on all products by the WHORE OF BABYLON
4. MARYOLATRY is the ROMANIST practice of worshiping the mother of Jesus
5. MILLENNIUM is the one-thousand year period of total pacification planned for the Earth
6. RAPTURE is the rapid evacuation of designated personnel prior to the TRIBULATION
7. ROMANISM is the theology of the WHORE OF BABYLON
8. SOLA SCRIPTURA is the principle of disseminating future operations by written orders rather than word of mouth
9. TRIBULATION is a seven year period of hostilities planned to subdue the Earth
10. WHORE OF BABYLON is the One World Church described in Revelation as a woman who rides a beast.

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Bc

Using bc to crank out pi. The answer becomes more trustworthy the longer you let bc think about it.

#!/bin/bash
echo “scale=$1;a(1)*4” | bc -l

Calculate absolute magnitude of Sirius

  • Visual magnitude = -1.46
  • Distance = 8.6 light-years

$ echo ‘mvis=-1.46; dist=8.6; mvis-5*((l(dist/3.26156)/l(10))-1)’ |bc -l

1.43463460507643045915

Calculate absolute magnitude of Tau Ceti

  • Visual magnitude = 3.5
  • Distance = 11.912

$ echo ‘mvis=3.5; dist=11.912; mvis-5*((l(dist/3.26156)/l(10))-1)’ |bc -l

5.68720343757367040805

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The Writings

Context is everything. For example, does the following sentence occur in the Bible?
“There is no God.”
Yes, twice actually. Psalm 14:1 and Psalm 53:1 as follows:
“The fool says in his heart, ‘There is no God.’”
Context is everything.

I totally agree! So what comes right after Psalm 14:1 ?

Psalm 14:2 The LORD looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God.

A god worthy of worship would already know if anyone did seek him.

The scripture says, “there is none that doeth good, no, not one” (Psalms 14:3). Therefore, none of us can stand before the Lord in our own righteousness. But through the righteousness of Christ, we can come boldly before the throne of God’s grace (Hebrews 4:16).

Job 1:1 There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil.

Correct and the Bible and Christianity teach that children are innocent and go to heaven no matter what. You were talking about children, not sinners.

On the contrary, it is written (Psalm 51:5): Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.

Pss. 88

[5] Free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom thou rememberest no more: and they are cut off from thy hand.

[10] Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead? shall the dead arise and praise thee? Selah.

[11] Shall thy lovingkindness be declared in the grave? or thy faithfulness in destruction?

[12] Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? and thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness?

King David is urging God to listen to him, because at least it’s more interesting than trying to listen to the dead, who are unable to praise God, or declare what a great fellow he is, or to know his wonders and righteousness.    And that’s a problem for Christians who believe the dead can do just that.

[13] But unto thee have I cried, O LORD; and in the morning shall my prayer prevent thee.

The essence of prayer was summarized quite succinctly by Robert Heinlein in his 1985 novel “The Cat Who Walks Through Walls”:

“The details of revealed religions differed wildly but were essentially the same: Somewhere up in the sky—or down in the earth—or in a volcano—any inaccessible place—there was an old man in a nightshirt who knew everything and was all powerful and created everything and rewarded and punished…and could be bribed.”

We have prayer for the same reason we still have the sin of idolatry, it’s a vestige of an earlier theology when there were many gods and heaven was like City Hall.  God is omniscient and omnipotent and has the perfect plan, but if the perfect plan isn’t to our own personal liking we can ask for a modification.  Don’t let the hurricane hit Pensacola because it will kill Pentecostal true believers.  Let it go hit those Catholic libtards in New Orleans.

But when the temple got zapped by the surrounding kingdoms (Babylon, Rome), Yahweh was re-interpreted to be the only God of the whole Earth to explain why he would send soldiers from outside of the Chosen to punish the Chosen with genocide for skipping a Sabbath or two, or helping themselves to some bacon. The attacking armies were agents of this larger God even as the Chosen were.

Nobody stopped to question why a single real God would be “jealous” when other fake gods received worship. Television series often have early continuity errors like this before they get their story straight by the third or fourth season.

Eventually this newly universalized God was given the attribute of omniscience. Yet we still make requests of this God as though he were just an old school tribal deity. Ain’t inertia grand?

The very first scientists were christian. Science doesnt contradict christianity but rather proves it. Not all of creation is mentioned in the bible. But there are countless scientific discoveries in the bible that were mentioned far before they were ever known to mankind.

On the contrary, it is written (Psalm 93:1): The LORD reigneth, he is clothed with majesty; the LORD is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.

Science: “Eppur si muove.”

A strange theory, given that the oldest books in The Bible only mention the afterlife briefly in passing and give no real details about it.

The details it does give about it are quite explicit:

Psalm 88:5 Free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom thou rememberest no more: and they are cut off from thy hand.

Pastor Stephen Broden Preaches on the Immutability of God

Psalm 106:44-45 Nevertheless he regarded their affliction, when he heard their cry: And he remembered for them his covenant, and repented according to the multitude of his mercies.

Saying the Bible is not a book about science is like saying a cookbook is not a book about chemistry. – Robert J Marks II

Bible science—>

Proverbs 6:

[6] Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise:

[7] Which having no guide, overseer, or ruler,

[8] Provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest.

“But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.”

2 Peter 3:10 KJV

Also Bible (Ecclesiastes 1:4): One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever.

Ecclesiastes 9

“And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.” (Genesis 2:7)

According to this verse, man is a “trinity” consisting of a material body, the breath (or spirit) of God, and together these comprise a soul.

The word “spirit” is bound up with the word “respiration” and is nothing more than breath, which was a mystery to the authors of the Bible. They thought that that which causes breathing was given by God, and returned to God when a person died. They did not ascribe consciousness to this spirit or breath at first.

The Israelites of the Old Testament did not think much about the survival of the identity after death, saying the dead’s view of God is that “…for in death there is no remembrance of thee…” (Psalm 6:5) and having God return the favor, saying of the dead’s relationship to God, “…whom thou rememberest no more: and they are cut off from thy hand…” (Psalm 88:5), a view that is affirmed by Solomon thus, (Ecclesiastes 9:5) “For the living know that they shall die: but the dead know not any thing, neither have they any more a reward; for the memory of them is forgotten.”

And so things stood until the Levant was conquered by Alexander II and passed on to two of the three Diadochi who followed in his wake, and there was among the Jews a massive injection of Hellenistic ideas, especially Plato’s “ideal forms”. Just as an actual chair was held to be a poor copy of a perfect “ideal” chair which existed somewhere in a remote mathematical mindscape, so was the psyche held to be the ideal, “true” human being, temporarily imprisoned in a corruptible body. These ideas of a dichotomy between the mind and body were embraced by the Pharisees in the 1st and 2nd centuries BCE, even as the Sadducees retained the Hebrews’ original lack of belief in spirits and angels.

Whereas in the time of David “an evil spirit from the LORD” was considered to be, essentially, a bad mood, spirits after Hellenization came to be seen as disembodied beings of pure intelligence. The spirit hypothesis arose from the paradox of a thinking mind contemplating the end of its own life and trying to imagine not thinking. This impossibility leads directly to the belief that consciousness will somehow continue even after the very organ of consciousness, the brain, has turned into worm-ridden tapioca pudding.

Against this background, aided by a Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, Jesus Christ fashioned a proselytizing variety of Judaism, yet still he taught that God could destroy both body and soul in the grave and that any future dealings with God would occur after a bodily resurrection. His ideas where further spiced by the dualistic ideas of Saul/Paul of Tarsus, which he got, in part, from the Persians along with a refined doctrine of angels complete with principalities, powers, virtues, and the like.

All this in turn set the stage for further developments by the Catholic Church which firmly entrenched the idea of man’s soul as an immaterial entity, incapable of annihilation yet still subject to being bound in bodies or physical places like purgatory or hell. No one, however, has given much thought to the exact composition of a soul, the guage bosons that would be exchanged as force carriers of the soul, how the soul could be confined in a body or lake of fire, or any other such things. Perhaps everyone, all along, knew the soul hypothesis was only so much Bolshevik and didn’t bother with the details.

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